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How To Reference Pictures In A Dissertation

The image below is scanned from a published book. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session, or  paper/thesis, as follows:

[Figure 1. This photograph from 1990 shows the Monument against Fascism designed by Jochen Gerz and Esther Shalev-Gerz, Hamburg, 1986-1993. Image from James Young, ed.,  Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (New York: Prestel, 1994), 70]

If you need to use this image in a published work, you will have to seek permission. For example, the book from which this image was scanned should have a section on photo credits which would help you identify the person/archive holding this image.


The image below was found through Google Images and downloaded from the internet. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session,or paper/thesis, as follows:

[Figure 2. This image shows the interior of Bibliotheca Alexandrina designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta in 2001. Image downloaded from http://mgkhs.com/gallery/alexandria in March 2016.]

If you want to use this image in a published work, you will have to do your best to track down its source to request permission to use. The web site or social media site where you found the image may not be an appropriate source, since it is common for people to repost images without attribution. Just because "everyone does it" does not mean that you should be using such materials without attribution or documentation. In this specific example, you may need to write to the photographer or to the architecture firm. If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source, or have not received a response, you may be able to use an image found on the internet with appropriate documentation in a publication.


 

The image below was downloaded from a digitized historic collection of photographs held by an institutional archive. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows:

[Figure 3. In the 1920s the urban landscape of Los Angeles started to change, as various developers began building multi-family apartment houses in sections previously zoned for single family dwellings. Seen in this photograph by Dick Whittington is the Warrington apartment building, which was completed in 1928, surrounded by older single family structures. Downloaded from the USC Digital Library in February 2016]

If you plan to use this photograph in a publication, seek permission from the library/institution from whose digital archive you downloaded the image. Contact information is usually found in the record for the image.


 

The image below was taken by the author. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation,classroom session, paper/thesis, or a publication* as follows:

[Figure 4. Genex Tower, also known as West City Gate, is a residential tower located in New Belgrade. This example of late 20th century brutalist-style architecture was designed in 1977 by Mihajlo Mitrović. Photographed by the author in 2013.]

*Please note, if you re-photographed someone else's photograph or a work of art, or if you re-photographed a published image, you may not be able to publish your photograph without first seeking permission or credit for its content. If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source or have not received a response, you may be able to use your image with appropriate documentation.

This page will help you cite images. Be sure to keep track of the basic information needed for citing images:

  • Creator name(s)

  • Title of work

  • Creation date

  • Materials and dimensions

  • Location of work (museum, repository, collection, et cetera)

If you found the image in a book or periodical, you will need to cite the book's or magazine's information.  See examples below.

If you found the image on the web or in an online database, you will need to cite the database name, URL, identifying file number for the image, and date of access.  See examples below.

Your instructor may require you to use a specific style manual; consult the manual for the proper format of your citation.

 

Some examples:

Chicago Style citation, work of art:

Chihuly, Dale, Olive Macchia with Cadmium Yellow Lip Wrap, 1992.  Brown glass and gold leaf, 19 inches high. Dayton Art Institute, Dayton.

Chicago Style citation, from an image database:

Monet, Claude. View of the Sea at Sunset, 1870-1874. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. http://www.artstor.org/ (accessed September 1, 2009).

MLA Style citation, work of art:

Chihuly, Dale. Olive Macchia with Cadmium Yellow Lip Wrap. 1992. Brown glass and gold leaf. Dayton Art Institute, Dayton.

MLA Style citation, from an image database:

Monet, Claude. View of the Sea at Sunset.1870-1874. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. ARTstor. Web. 1 Sept. 2009.

MLA Style citation, image found in book:

Louis, Morris. Saraband. 1959. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Art Since 1900. By Hal Foster, Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, and Benjamin H.D. Buchloh. New York : Thames & Hudson Inc., 2004. 440. Painting.

APA Style citation, work of art:

Chihuly, D. (Artist). (1992). Olive Macchia with Cadmium Lip Wrap [Glasswork]. Dayton, Ohio; Dayton Art Institute.

APA Style citation, from an image database:

Monet, C. (Artist). (1870-1874). View of the Sea at Sunset [Image of Painting]. Dayton, Ohio; Dayton Art Institute. Retrieved September 1, 2009, from http://library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8D1Efjk2NzkvKzU7alN7R3IiWHwrew%3D%3D&zoomparams=

Turabian citation (in note), work of art:

1. Dale Chilhuly, Olive Macchia with Cadmium Lip Wrap, brown glass and gold leaf, 1992, Dayton Art Institute, Dayton.

Turabian citation (in note), from an image database:

1. Claude Monet, View of the Sea at Sunset (1870-1874). ARTstor. JPEG file. www.artstor.org, image ID AMICO_BOSTON_103834117 (accessed 1 September 2009).