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Difference Between Catalogue And Bibliography Definition

A library catalog or library catalogue is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, realia, cartographic materials, etc.) that is considered library material (e.g., a single novel in an anthology), or a group of library materials (e.g., a trilogy), or linked from the catalog (e.g., a webpage) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users (patrons) of the library.

The card catalog was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalog (OPAC). Some still refer to the online catalog as a "card catalog". Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. Many libraries that retain their physical card catalog will post a sign advising the last year that the card catalog was updated. Some libraries have eliminated their card catalog in favour of the OPAC for the purpose of saving space for other use, such as additional shelving.

The largest library catalog in the world is the WorldCat.orgunion catalog managed by the non-profit library cooperative OCLC, based in Dublin, Ohio. In January 2016, had over 360,000,000 catalog records and over 2 billion library holdings.[1]


Charles Ammi Cutter made the first explicit statement regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in his Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog in 1876.[2] According to Cutter, those objectives were

1. to enable a person to find a book of which either (Identifying objective)

  • the author
  • the title
  • the subject
  • the date of publication

2. to show what the library has (Collocating objective)

  • by a given author
  • on a given subject
  • in a given kind of literature

3. to assist in the choice of a book (Evaluating objective)

  • as to its edition (bibliographically)
  • as to its character (literary or topical)

These objectives can still be recognized in more modern definitions formulated throughout the 20th century. 1960/61 Cutter's objectives were revised by Lubetzky and the Conference on Cataloging Principles (CCP) in Paris. The latest attempt to describe a library catalog's goals and functions was made in 1998 with Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) which defines four user tasks: find, identify, select, and obtain.

A catalog also serves as an inventory or bookkeeping of the library's contents. If an item (a book) is not found in the catalog, the user may continue her search at another library. Library thieves, who may be staff or regular visitors of the library, risk discovery if an item listed in the catalog is missing from the shelves. To reduce this risk, a thief may also steal the catalog card describing the item.[3]

Catalog card[edit]

A catalog card is an individual entry in a library catalog containing bibliographic information, including author’s name, book title, and even approximate location (on bookshelf). The first cards used may have been French playing cards, which, in the 1700s, were blank on one side.[4] In November 1789, the French began collecting all books from religious houses (churches) and decided to use these books to build a system of public libraries, including creating an inventory of all books. The backs of the playing cards contained the bibliographic information for each book and this inventory became known as the "French Cataloging Code of 1791".[5] English inventor Francis Ronalds began using a catalog of cards to manage his growing book collection around 1815, which has been denoted as the first practical use of the system.[6][7] In the mid-1800s, Natale Battezzati, an Italian publisher, developed a card system for booksellers in which cards represented authors, titles and subjects. Very shortly afterward, Melvil Dewey and other American librarians began to champion the card catalog because of its great expandability. In some libraries books were catalogued based on the size of the book while other libraries organized based only on the author’s name.[8] This made finding a book difficult.

Dewey and others devised a new system. Books were organized by subject then those would be alphabetized based on the author’s name. Each book was assigned a “call number” which identified the subject and location. The decimal points divided different sections of the call number. The call number on the card matched a number written on the spine of each book.[8] During this time, in 1860 the American Assistant Librarian Ezra Abbot began designing a card catalog that was easily accessible and secure for keeping the cards in order; he managed this by placing the cards on edge between two wooden blocks. He published his findings in the Annual Report of the Library for 1863 and they were adopted by many American libraries.[5] Work on the catalog began in 1862 and within the first year 35,762 catalog cards had been created. The catalog cards were 2 x 5 inches; the size of these cards were known as the Harvard College size, due to these being used in the Harvard College Library. One of the first acts of the newly formed American Library Association in 1876 was to set standards for the size of the cards used in American libraries, thus making their manufacture and the manufacture of cabinets, uniform.[4]OCLC, long the major supplier of catalog cards to the world's libraries, printed the last one on October 1, 2015.[9]

In a physical catalog, the information about each item is on a separate card, which is placed in order in the catalog drawer depending on the type of record. If it was a non-fiction record, Charles A. Cutter's classification system would help the patron find the book they wanted in a quick fashion. Cutter's classification system is as follows:

  • A, general works (encyclopedias, periodicals, society publications);
  • B-D, Philosophy, Psychology, Religion;
  • E-G, Biography, History, Geography, and Travels;
  • H-K, Social Sciences, Law;
  • L-T, Science and Technology;
  • X, Philology; Z, Book Arts, Bibliography.[10]

Here's an example of a catalog card, which would be filed alphabetically in the Author section:

    Arif, Abdul Majid. Political structure in a changing Pakistani village / by Abdul Majid Arif and Basharat Hafeez Andaleeb. – 2nd ed. – Lahore : ABC Press, 1985. xvi, 367p. : ill. ; 22 cm. Includes index. ISBN969-8612-02-5


    Traditionally, there are the following types of catalog:

    • Author catalog: a formal catalog, sorted alphabetically according to the names of authors, editors, illustrators, etc.
    • Subject catalogue: a catalogue that sorted based on the Subject.
    • Title catalog: a formal catalog, sorted alphabetically according to the article of the entries.
    • Dictionary catalog: a catalog in which all entries (author, title, subject, series) are interfiled in a single alphabetical order. This was a widespread form of card catalog in North American libraries prior to the introduction of the computer-based catalog.[11]
    • Keyword catalog: a subject catalog, sorted alphabetically according to some system of keywords.
    • Mixed alphabetic catalog forms: sometimes, one finds a mixed author / title, or an author / title / keyword catalog.
    • Systematic catalog: a subject catalog, sorted according to some systematic subdivision of subjects. Also called a Classified catalog.
    • Shelf list catalog: a formal catalog with entries sorted in the same order as bibliographic items are shelved. This catalog may also serve as the primary inventory for the library.


    During the early modern period, libraries were organized through the direction of the librarian in charge. There was no universal method, so some books were organized by language or book material, for example, but most scholarly libraries had recognizable categories (like philosophy, saints, mathematics). The first library to list titles alphabetically under each subject was the Sorbonne library in Paris. Library catalogs originated as manuscript lists, arranged by format (folio, quarto, etc.) or in a rough alphabetical arrangement by author. Before printing, librarians had to enter new acquisitions into the margins of the catalog list until a new one was created. Because of the nature of creating texts at this time, most catalogs were not able to keep up with new acquisitions.[12] It was not until the printing press was well-established that strict cataloging became necessary because of the influx of printed materials. Printed catalogs, sometimes called dictionary catalogs, began to be published in the early modern period and enabled scholars outside a library to gain an idea of its contents.[13] Copies of these in the library itself would sometimes be interleaved with blank leaves on which additions could be recorded, or bound as guardbooks in which slips of paper were bound in for new entries. Slips could also be kept loose in cardboard or tin boxes, stored on shelves. The first card catalogs appeared in the late 19th century after the standardization of the 5 in. x 3 in. card for personal filing systems, enabling much more flexibility, and towards the end of the 20th century the Online public access catalog was developed (see below). These gradually became more common as some libraries progressively abandoned such other catalog formats as paper slips (either loose or in sheaf catalog form), and guardbooks. The beginning of the Library of Congress's catalog card service in 1911 led to the use of these cards in the majority of American libraries. An equivalent scheme in the United Kingdom was operated by the British National Bibliography from 1956[14] and was subscribed to by many public and other libraries.

    • c. Seventh century BCE, the Assyrian king Assurbanipal established a royal library at Nineveh, off of the Tigris River. His 30,000 clay tablets, written in several languages, were organized according to shape, and they were separated by content into different rooms. This library had one of the first catalogs. King Assurbanipal sent his scribes to other libraries within his kingdom to record information and then come back to him, he used their recordings to build his library and catalog.[15]
    • c. Third century BCE, Pinakes by Callimachus at the Library of Alexandria was arguably the first library catalog.
    • 9th century: Libraries of Carolingianschools and monasteries employ library catalog system to organize and loan out books.[16][17][18]
    • c. 10th century: The Persian city of Shiraz's library had over 300 rooms and thorough catalogs to help locate texts these were kept in the storage chambers of the library and they covered every topic imaginable.[19]
    • c. 1246: Library at Amiens Cathedral in France uses call numbers associated with the location of books.[20]
    • c. 1542–1605: The Mughul emperor Akbar was a warrior, sportsman, and famous cataloger. He organized a catalog of the Imperial Library's 24,000 texts, and he did most of the classifying himself.[21]
    • 1595: Nomenclator of Leiden University Library appears, the first printed catalog of an institutional library.
    • Renaissance Era: In Paris, France The Sorbonne Library was one of the first libraries to list titles alphabetically based on the subject they happened to fall under. This became a new organization method for catalogs.[22]
    • Early 1600's: Sir Thomas Bodley divided cataloging into three different categories. History, poesy, and philosophy.[23]
    • 1674: Thomas Hyde's catalog for the Bodleian Library.
    • 1791:The French Cataloging Code of 1791
    • 1815: Thomas Jefferson sells his personal library to US government to establish the Library of Congress. He had organized his library by adapting Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge, specifically using Memory, Reason, and Imagination as his three areas, which were then broken down into 44 subdivisions.

    More about the early history of library catalogs has been collected in 1956 by Strout.[24]


    In a title catalog, one can distinguish two sort orders:

    • In the grammatical sort order (used mainly in older catalogs), the most important word of the title is the first sort term. The importance of a word is measured by grammatical rules; for example, the first noun may be defined to be the most important word.
    • In the mechanical sort order, the first word of the title is the first sort term. Most new catalogs use this scheme, but still include a trace of the grammatical sort order: they neglect an article (The, A, etc.) at the beginning of the title.

    The grammatical sort order has the advantage that often, the most important word of the title is also a good keyword (question 3), and it is the word most users remember first when their memory is incomplete. However, it has the disadvantage that many elaborate grammatical rules are needed, so that only expert users may be able to search the catalog without help from a librarian.

    In some catalogs, persons' names are standardized (i. e., the name of the person is always cataloged and sorted in a standard form) even if it appears differently in the library material. This standardization is achieved by a process called authority control. Simply put, authority control is defined as the establishment and maintenance of consistent forms of terms, as of names, subjects, and titles, to be used as headings in bibliographic records.[25] An advantage of the authority control is that it is easier to answer question 2 (Which works of some author does the library have?). On the other hand, it may be more difficult to answer question 1 (Does the library have some specific material?) if the material spells the author in a peculiar variant. For the cataloguer, it may incur too much work to check whether Smith, J. is Smith, John or Smith, Jack.

    For some works, even the title can be standardized. The technical term for this is uniform title. For example, translations and re-editions are sometimes sorted under their original title. In many catalogs, parts of the Bible are sorted under the standard name of the book(s) they contain. The plays of William Shakespeare are another frequently cited example of the role played by a uniform title in the library catalog.

    Many complications about alphabetic sorting of entries arise. Some examples:

    • Some languages know sorting conventions that differ from the language of the catalog. For example, some Dutch catalogs sort IJ as Y. Should an English catalog follow this suit? And should a Dutch catalog sort non-Dutch words the same way? (There are also pseudo-ligatures which sometimes come at the beginning of a word, such as Œdipus. See also collation and locale.)
    • Some titles contain numbers, for example 2001: A Space Odyssey. Should they be sorted as numbers, or spelled out as Two thousand and one? (Book-titles that begin with non-numeral-non-alphabetic glyphs such as #1 are similarly very difficult. Books which have diacritics in the first letter are a similar but far-more-common problem; casefolding of the title is standard, but stripping the diacritics off can change the meaning of the words.)
    • de Balzac, Honoré or Balzac, Honoré de? Ortega y Gasset, José or Gasset, José Ortega y? (In the first example, "de Balzac" is the legal and cultural last name; splitting it apart would be the equivalent of listing a book about tennis under "-enroe, John Mac-" for instance. In the second example, culturally and legally the lastname is "Ortega y Gasset" which is sometimes shortened to simply "Ortega" as the masculine lastname; again, splitting is culturally incorrect by the standards of the culture of the author, but defies the normal understanding of what a 'last name' is—i.e. the final word in the ordered list of names that define a person—in cultures where multi-word-lastnames are rare. See also authors such as Sun Tzu, where in the author's culture the surname is traditionally printed first, and thus the 'last name' in terms of order is in fact the person's first-name culturally.)

    For a fuller discussion, see collation.

    In a subject catalog, one has to decide on which classification system to use. The cataloguer will select appropriate subject headings for the bibliographic item and a unique classification number (sometimes known as a "call number") which is used not only for identification but also for the purposes of shelving, placing items with similar subjects near one another, which aids in browsing by library users, who are thus often able to take advantage of serendipity in their search process.

    Online catalogs[edit]

    Online cataloging, through such systems as the Dynix software[26] developed in 1983 and used widely through the late 1990s,[27] has greatly enhanced the usability of catalogs, thanks to the rise of MARC standards (an acronym for MAchine Readable Cataloging) in the 1960s.[28]

    Rules governing the creation of MARC catalog records include not only formal cataloging rules such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, second edition (AACR2),[29]Resource Description and Access (RDA)[30] but also rules specific to MARC, available from both the U.S. Library of Congress and the OCLC, the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative which builds and maintains WorldCat.[31]

    MARC was originally used to automate the creation of physical catalog cards, but its use evolved into direct access to the MARC computer files during the search process.[32]

    OPACs have enhanced usability over traditional card formats because:[33]

    1. The online catalog does not need to be sorted statically; the user can choose author, title, keyword, or systematic order dynamically.
    2. Most online catalogs allow searching for any word in a title or other field, increasing the ways to find a record.
    3. Many online catalogs allow links between several variants of an author's name.
    4. The elimination of paper cards has made the information more accessible to many people with disabilities, such as the visually impaired, wheelchair users, and those who suffer from mold allergies or other paper- or building-related problems.
    5. Physical storage space is considerably reduced.
    6. Updates are significantly more efficient.

    See also[edit]


    1. ^"A global library resource". Retrieved 2016-01-15. 
    2. ^Public Libraries in the United States of America then History, Condition, and Management. 1876. 
    3. ^Vennard, Martin (April 24, 2013) The curious tale of the stolen books, BBC News
    4. ^ abKrajewski, Markus (2011), Paper machines, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press 
    5. ^ abNix, Larry (2009). "Evolution of the Library Card Catalog". Retrieved 2017-03-06. 
    6. ^James, M.S. (1902). "The Progress of the Modern Card Catalog Principle". Public Libraries. 
    7. ^Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4. 
    8. ^ abSchifman, Jonathan (2016). "How the Humble Index Card Foresaw the Internet". Retrieved 2017-03-06. 
    9. ^author-replicator. "OCLC prints last library catalog cards". Retrieved 2016-01-15. 
    10. ^Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 205.
    11. ^Wiegand, Wayne; Davis, Donald G., Jr. (1994). Encyclopedia of Library History. Garland Publishing, Inc. pp. 605–606. ISBN 0824057872. 
    12. ^Murray, pp. 88–89.
    13. ^E.g. (1) Radcliffe, John Bibliotheca chethamensis: Bibliothecae publicae Mancuniensis ab Humfredo Chetham, armigero fundatae catalogus, exhibens libros in varias classas pro varietate argumenti distributos; [begun by John Radcliffe, continued by Thoams Jones]. 5 vols. Mancuni: Harrop, 1791–1863. (2) Wright, C. T. Hagberg & Purnell, C. J. Catalogue of the London Library, St. James's Square, London. 10 vols. London, 1913–55. Includes: Supplement: 1913–20. 1920. Supplement: 1920–28. 1929. Supplement: 1928–53. 1953 (in 2 vols). Subject index: (Vol. 1). 1909. Vol. 2: Additions, 1909–22. Vol. 3: Additions, 1923–38. 1938. Vol. 4: (Additions), 1938–53. 1955.
    14. ^Walford, A. J., ed. (1981) Walford's Concise Guide to Reference Material. London: Library Association; p. 6
    15. ^Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-61608-453-0. 
    16. ^Schutz, Herbert (2004). The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750–900. BRILL. pp. 160–162. ISBN 90-04-13149-3. 
    17. ^Colish, Marcia L. (1999). Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition, 400–1400. Yale University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-300-07852-7. 
    18. ^Lerner, Fred (1 February 2001). Story of Libraries: From the Invention of Writing to the Computer Age. A&C Black. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8264-1325-3. 
    19. ^Murray, p. 56
    20. ^Joachim, Martin D. (2003). Historical Aspects of Cataloging and Classification. Haworth Information Press. p. 460. ISBN 978-0-7890-1981-3. 
    21. ^Murray, pp. 104–105
    22. ^Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-61608-453-0. 
    23. ^Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-61608-453-0. 
    24. ^Strout, R.F. (1956). "The development of the catalog and cataloging codes"(PDF). 26 (4). Library Quarterly: 254–75. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2015-04-02. 
    25. ^"Authority Control". Unabridged. 2017. 
    26. ^Dunsire, G.; Pinder, C. (1991). "Dynix, automation and development at Napier Polytechnic". Program: electronic library and information systems. 25 (2): 91. doi:10.1108/eb047078. 
    27. ^Automation Systems InstalledArchived January 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Counting by Library organizations.
    28. ^Coyle, Karen (2011-07-25). "MARC21 as Data: A Start". The Code4Lib Journal (14). 
    29. ^AACR2
    30. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
    31. ^"WorldCat facts and statistics". Online Computer Library Center. 2011. Retrieved November 6, 2011. 
    32. ^Avram, Henriette D. (1975). MARC, its history and implications. Washington D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0844401765. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
    33. ^Husain, Rashid; Ansari, Mehtab Alam (March 2006). "From Card Catalogue to Web OPACs". DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology. 26 (2): 41–47. Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 


    • Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago: Skypoint Publishing. ISBN 1602397066. 

    Further reading[edit]

    • Joudrey, Daniel N.; Taylor, Arlene G.; Miller, David P. (2015). Introduction to Cataloging and Classification (11th ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited/ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-856-4. 
    • Chan, Lois Mai (2007). Cataloging and classification : an introduction (3rd ed.). Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810860007. 
    • Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7 
    • Library of Congress (2017). The Card Catalog: Books, Cards, and Literary Treasures. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1452145402. 
    • Svenonius, Elaine (2009). The intellectual foundation of information organization (1st MIT Press pbk. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262512619. 
    • Taylor, Archer (1986) Book Catalogues: their varieties and uses; 2nd ed., introductions, corrections and additions by W. P. Barlow, Jr. Winchester: St Paul's Bibliographies (Previous ed.: Chicago: Newberry Library, 1957)
    • Hanson, James C. M.Catalog rules; author and title entries (Chicago: American Library Association. 1908)

    External links[edit]

    Another view of the SML card catalog
    Sample card catalog record
    Librarian at the card files at a senior high school in New Ulm, Minnesota (1974)
    Dynix, an early but popular and long-lasting online catalog

    3. Finding Materials Online: Library Catalogs, Journal Indexes, Bibliographies, and Databases

    Library Catalogs and Databases

    Please also see the Subject Gateways section.

    Korea Education & Research Information Service (KERIS) 한국교육학술정보원
    Expanded service based on RISS. Besides citation searching and the limited free text available through RISS, KERIS also provides access to full text of articles available through KISS and DBpia, as well as providing a "RISS Intern'l ILL" request function for other articles and dissertations.

    KOLIS-Network 국가자료공동목록시스템
    A union catalog of the public libraries of South Korea including the National Library. Bibliographic information is searchable by keyword, title, author, publisher, and browsing by subject is also supported.

    RISS 한국학술정보서비스
    The union catalog of academic libraries in South Korea and Japan provided by the Korea Education & Research Information Service (한국교육학술정보원). Books, monographs, theses, dissertations, and articles from Korean academic journals are searchable by title, author, publisher, and date. Some of the materials are available in full-text online along with abstracts.

    KORCIS Korean Old and Rare Collection Information System 한국고전적종합목록시스템
    A national catalog of Korean old books and manuscripts. Search by title, keyword, author, and publisher.

    National Library of Korea 국립중앙도서관
    This online catalog allows users not only to perform a general search but also to browse library materials by subject. The library resources include books, monographs, periodicals, theses and dissertations, academic journals, and rare books. Full-text access only in Korea.

    National Assembly Library 대한민국 국회도서관
    This online catalog provides bibliographic information for books, multimedia resources, periodicals, newspapers and other resources housed in the National Assembly Library of Korea. Users can search through more than 25 databases of government publications, documents issued by the National Assembly, academic journals published since 1910, theses and dissertations since 1945, rare books, and other collections. Full-text access only in Korea.

    Changsŏ-gak (Changseo-gak) 장서각
    An online catalog of Changsŏ-gak (Changseo-gak), the library of the Academy of Korean Studies (한국학중앙연구원), which houses more than 430,000 books, microfilms, and other resources for Korean studies. Some of the library materials are available online.

    Worldcat (Harvard ID/PIN required)
    WorldCat is a union catalog of records of any type of material (books, periodicals, scores, films, recordings, etc.) catalogued by over 41,000 OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) member libraries, primarily but not exclusively, from libraries in the United States, but extending to 82 other nations. To view the interface in Korean, please click on the Korean-language display option 한국어 at the bottom of the screen.

    General Bibliographies: Articles, Essays, and Books

    Bibliography of Asian Studies (Login required)
    Citation index for Western-language journal articles, edited collections and older monographs (pre-1992). Coverage is from 1971 on and primarily English-language

    Annual Bibliography of Oriental Studies東洋学文献類目
    Harvard-Yenching Ref (J) DS5 .T69x (1934 - )
    Citation index for scholarly literature on East Asia in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Western languages. Includes journal articles and monographs. Coverage is strongest for Chinese, Japanese, and Western languages. The online version covers scholarship published since 1981 and allows author and title keyword searching. It offers two interfaces:

    • Japanese-language interface: Search terms may be entered in Japanese, Chinese, Korean, or Western languages. Please note that characters, kana, and Western-language search terms will search for those precise terms. i.e. 蒙古, モンゴル, and Mongolia will retrieve different records. Please enter katakana terms with full-width katakana. Searching capability in han'gul is limited.
    • Western-language interface: Searching in Western scripts only for Western-language materials.
    If you experience display problems, see the instructions for viewing Japanese web pages.

    Korean Bibliography by the Library of Congress
    Bibliography of approximately 4,800 records of books about Korea in English up to 1995 held by the Library of Congress. To browse by area of interest, see the Topical Term Index. Keyword searching is also possible.

    Database for Books and Magazines on Modern Korea 近代朝鮮関係書籍データベース
    Bibliographic database of books and magazines on Korea published in Japan between 1868 and 1945.

    CD-ROM Materials
    The following materials may be used on CD-ROM on the Korean research workstation in the Harvard-Yenching Library reading room. Please request them at the circulation desk by call number.

    The Harvard Korean studies bibliography: 80,000 references on Korea
    Harvard-Yenching CD-ROM (W) CD-ROM W-0001
    Compiled by Frank Hoffmann, with Matthew J. Christensen and Kirk W. Larsen, this CD documents Western-language scholarship on Korea before 1999. It includes books, articles, book chapters, dissertations, and reviews. In-library use only.

    Subject Bibliographies and Databases

    Yūhō Bunko Collection of the Research Institute for Oriental Cultures of Gakushuin University 学習院大学東洋文化研究所所蔵・友邦文庫
    Large collection of historical materials relating to the Government-General of Korea during the Japanese colonial period. Includes the Korea/Manchuria collection of books and documents on colonial Korea and Manchuria; general books; original documents from the Government-General, including budgets and reports; newspapers and foreign journals from the the 1930s-1960s; recorded tapes and transcriptions of interviews done in the post-war period with former Government-General officials; photographs; survey materials, and various other items, many of them unique. Information about holdings is being made available in .cvs format via their website. Historical photographs are available as image files via Gakushuin University's online catalog. Please note that a plug-in is required.

    Korean Short Story Index (한국단편소설색인)
    Indexes short story collections held at the Hamilton Library of the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Does not include stories published in literary magazines.

    Korean Literature Translation Institute 한국문학번역원
    The Virtual Library of Korean Literature provides bibliographic information on translations of Korean literary works both classic and modern and about Korean authors from Kim Pusik to Park Wansŏ. It also offers a "cultural dictionary" (문학영상사전), which provides visual images of unique elements of Korean culture that appear in Korean literature along with explanation in Korean and in English; a "literary geography" (문학지도), which offers more photographic images relating to famous works of Korean literature; and "interviews with contemporary Korean writers" as audio files. Bibliographic records of library materials housed in the Korean Literature Translation Institute are also searchable in this web site by title, author, and publisher and can be browsed by subject. Some full text is provided of older works on Korea and of Korean works which have been translated.

    Please see the Films, Comic Books, and Music section.

    Resources for East Asian Language and Thought
    Includes a bibliography of scholarship on Korean Buddhism in English, Korean, and Japanese. For more description of this site, see the entry under full-text databases.

    Interlibrary Loan

    If a book or article you need is not available at Harvard, it may be possible to obtain it through Interlibrary Loan (ILL). Worldcat may help you find your materials at another library. For articles and dissertations from South Korea, please consult KERIS. If they are not available through these catalogs, please consult library staff to see if there might be other ways to find them. For East Asian-language materials, FAS affiliates may contact Harvard-Yenching Library ILL services. For Western-language materials, please contact either Harvard-Yenching or HCL ILL services at Widener Library. You may also submit a purchase request suggesting that the library obtain a particular work.

    Next:4. Finding Journal Articles