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Osmosis Process Example Essay

Osmosis in Plants

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Osmosis in Plants

Outline:

To investigate the effect of varying concentration of a certain sugar
solution on the amount of osmotic activity between the solution and a
potato chip of a given size.

Definition - Osmosis:

Movement of a solvent (liquid) through a semi-permeable membrane
separating solutions of different concentrations. The solvent passes
from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution
until the two concentrations are equal.

All cell membranes behave as semi permeable membranes, and osmosis is
a vital mechanism in the transport of fluids in living organisms for
example, in the transport of water from the roots up the stems of
plants.

Further relevant information on potato plant cells:

Plant cells always have a strong cell wall surrounding them. When they
take up water by osmosis they start to swell, but the cell wall
prevents them from bursting. Plant cells become "turgid" when they are
put in dilute solutions. Turgid means swollen and hard. The pressure
inside the cell rises and eventually the internal pressure of the cell
is so high that no more water can enter the cell. This liquid or
hydrostatic pressure works against osmosis. Turgidity is very
important to plants because this is what make the green parts of the
plant "stand up" into the sunlight.

When plant cells are placed in concentrated sugar solutions they lose
water by osmosis and they become "flaccid." This is the exact opposite
of "turgid". The contents of the potato cells

Shrinks and pulls away from the cell wall. These cells are said to be
plasmolysed.

When plant cells are placed in a solution which has exactly the same
osmotic strength as the cells they are in a state between turgidity
and flaccidity. We call this incipient plasmolysis. "Incipient" means
"about to be".

Plant cell structure:

Plant Structure:

How does Photosynthesis Work?:

The chloroplasts in the leaf cells convert sunlight into energy for
the plant.

Carbon dioxide + water = Sugar + Oxygen

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Osmosis in Plants." 123HelpMe.com. 10 Mar 2018
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Related Searches

Plants         Osmosis         Permeable Membrane         Plant Cells         Osmotic Activity         Sugar Solutions         Varying Concentration         Cell Membranes         Potato Chip        





6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2

Water movement in plants:

Xylem cell: Root cell:

The water is absorbed by the root calls and travels up the xylem cells
to all the parts of the plant. Water is needed to make very important
chemical processes happen, they also support the plant.

Reaction rate theory:

The theory is that different solutions can affect the way plant cells
osmoses e.g.

A sugar water solution increases the extent of osmosis compared to
just water.

Variables in the test:

These variables can affect the extent of osmosis: -

Heat:heating up the potato chip in the sugar will speed up the
reaction and may increase the extent of the osmosis.

Concentration of sugar in solution: The concentration of sugar in the
solution is a key factor in increasing or decreasing the extent of
osmosis in the plants the more sugary the solution, the greater the
extent of osmosis. The more sugar, the smaller the vegetable and the
greater the amount of osmosis will occur.

Stirring: stirring the solution will speed up the rate of osmosis. If
you leave the solution to react without stirring it will take a lot
longer as the cell walls are weakened more with the molecule
collisions that would occur.

Increasing surface area: if the potato chip had a larger surface area
the extent of osmosis would increase largely. In the experiment the
pieces of potato have to be the same size (length, width and even
weight).

Other Vegetables: by using other vegetables you can observe how the
rate of osmosis differs between them.

Age:by using fresh vegetables instead of old vegetables the extent of
osmosis will be greatly affected as the cell walls would be stronger
and newer.

PRELIMINARY

Choosing a variable:

It was decided that the concentration of the sugar in the solution was
the best variable to use to see what affected the extent of osmosis in
plants, so an experiment was set up in order to research whether our
predictions were correct.

Safety:

To make the test safe we used goggles where necessary, we used blunt
but effective corers to remove the potato pieces and we tucked all
stools and bags under tables to make the environment we worked in
safe.

Equipment:

* Sugar solution

* Water

* 7 Pyrex beakers - to hold the water and the sugar solution

* A potato

* A corer - to extract the potato pieces

* A Set of electronic scales - to measure the potato pieces before
and after the experiment

Prediction:

I predict that the higher the concentration of sugar solution, the
lighter and smaller the potato piece will become.

Method:

A range of sucrose sugar solutions will be prepared with
concentrations 0 molar, 0.2 molar, 0.4 molar, 0.6 molar, 0.8 molar, 1
molar and 2 molar. This will be done by adding varying amounts of
distilled water to varying amounts of sucrose solution (sugar
solution). Sections of potato will be cut using a scalpel and will be
weighed using scales. This part of the preparation must be done very
accurately as a change in the weight may allow more or less osmosis to
occur. Three chips will be placed in each beaker at the same time so
an average can be taken from each tube. I will use 10 ml of each
concentration of sugar solution and once in the test tubes they each
will be labelled. The potato pieces will then be placed in the
different beakers and then left for 45 minutes/1 hour. Then the potato
pieces will be removed, the surface solution removed using paper
towels and then they will be re-weighed. then if time is free
afterwards the test will be repeated, as to obtain a second (real)set
of results. This will hopefully produce more accurate results from
which I will be able to draw a more accurate conclusion.

Results:

Preliminary

0m

0.2m

0.4m

0.6m

0.8m

1m

2m

chip 1

2.7g

2.7g

2.3g

2.0g

2.0g

2.3g

2.1g

chip 2

2.6g

2.3g

2.5g

2.3g

2.0g

2.0g

2.0g

chip 3

2.8g

2.6g

2.5g

2.0g

2.3g

2.0g

2.4g

average

2.7g

2.5g

2.4g

2.1g

2.1g

2.1g

2.2g

Fair test:

We made

the test fair by: -

* Making each piece of potato the same weight (they were weighed on
accurate, electronic scales)

* The amounts of sugar in the solution were precise.

* We left the potato pieces in the solution for the same amount of
time.

* We didn't disturb or stir the beakers filled with solution.

Evaluation & Criticisms:

The experiment was very successful in my opinion. I obtained a large
quantity of very accurate results from which I was able to create
informative graphs. I think I took easily enough results for the
amount of concentrations that I was using, and the time that I used
for the experiment to last was enough to allow sufficient osmosis to
occur. However if I was to repeat the experiment I might well increase
the time of the result to allow more osmosis to happen. The cutting of
the potatoes was the most difficult part of the experiment as although
I was recording my results by mass, it could well have affected the
surface area and so the overall rate of osmosis. If I were to repeat
the experiment I would have possibly found a machine or tool to cut
the potato as it would ensure that all potatoes would be the same
weight and dimensions. As well as the potato I could have found a more
accurate way to measure out the solutions and to determine the molar
concentrations. This would ensure that I have an accurate amount of
fluid in each beaker. I could also weigh each chip on a more accurate
scale, e.g. not to 0.0g but to 0.00g. There were not any out of the
ordinary results, but some were not as close to the line as others.
This may have been caused by my mistakes. When the potato chips were
removed from the test tubes and dried I may well have dried some
potatoes more thoroughly than others and so some would have more
excess water, which would add to the mass. If the experiment was
repeated I could find another way to dry the potatoes that would
ensure that all were dried in the same way for the same time. However
with all this said I think that the experiment was truly successful
and I was very pleased with the complete comparison of my results with
my initial prediction.

Secondary sources:

The test can be proved right from many other sources from the internet
or text books for example, both suggest that the test was correct and
that the result that were collected were mainly correct as well. Here
are some articles that prove or the results were correct:

[IMAGE]The internet:

I found this picture and a piece of text about it on the inter net:-

'The solvent passes from a less concentrated solution to a more
concentrated solution until the two concentrations are equal'.

(Found from a link on google.com)

And:-

'The end result is that the plant, that was placed in the sucrose
solution, will had decreased in size and its mass lessened a
considerable and noticeable amount'

(Found on a revision web site)

REAL

Choosing a variable: (same as preliminary)

It was decided that the concentration of the sugar in the solution was
the best variable to use to see what affected the extent of osmosis in
plants, so an experiment was set up in order to research whether our
predictions were correct.

Safety: (same as preliminary)

To make the test safe we used goggles where necessary, we used blunt
but effective corers to remove the potato pieces and we tucked all
stools and bags under tables to make the environment we worked in
safe.

Equipment: (same as preliminary)

* Sugar solution

* Water

* 7 Pyrex beakers - to hold the water and the sugar solution

* A potato

* A corer - to extract the potato pieces

* A Set of electronic scales - to measure the potato pieces before
and after the experiment

Prediction: (same as preliminary)

I predict that the higher the concentration of sugar solution, the
lighter and smaller the potato piece will become (keeping in mind the
odd results will be discarded).

Method:

A range of sucrose sugar solutions will be prepared with
concentrations 0 molar, 0.2 molar, 0.4 molar, 0.6 molar, 0.8 molar, 1
molar and 2 molar. This will be done by adding varying amounts of
distilled water to varying amounts of sucrose solution (sugar
solution). Sections of potato will be cut using a scalpel and will be
weighed using scales. This part of the preparation must be done very
accurately as a change in the weight may allow more or less osmosis to
occur. Three chips will be placed in each beaker at the same time so
an average can be taken from each tube. I will use 10 ml of each
concentration of sugar solution and once in the test tubes they each
will be labelled. I could also weigh each chip on a more accurate
scale, e.g. not to 0.0g but to 0.00g. The potato pieces will then be
placed in the different beakers and then left for 45 minutes/1 hour,
even thought the waiting time should maybe be changed to around 1 hour
and 30 minutes+, we can't though as we just don't have the time to put
this in to action. Then the potato pieces will be removed, the surface
solution removed using paper towels and then they will be re-weighed
and the difference found between both tests (preliminary and real).

Results:

0m

0.2m

0.4m

0.6m

0.8m

1m

2m

chip 1

2.90g

2.90g

2.10g

1.50g

1.60g

2.10g

1.70g

chip 2

2.70g

2.10g

2.50g

2.10g

1.70g

1.50g

1.70g

chip 3

3.00g

2.70g

2.50g

1.50g

2.00g

1.70g

2.20g

average

2.90g

2.60g

2.40g

1.70g

1.80g

1.80g

1.90g

Difference between real and preliminary:

0m

0.2m

0.4m

0.6m

0.8m

1m

2m

0.20g

0.10g

0.0g

-0.40g

-0.30g

-0.30g

-0.30g

Fair Test:

* Making each piece of potato the same weight (they were weighed on
accurate, electronic scales)

* The amounts of sugar in the solution were precise.

* We left the potato pieces in the solution for the same amount of
time.

* We didn't disturb or stir the beakers filled with solution.

* We did the experiment in a constant room temperature.

Evaluation & Criticisms:

In my opinion the experiment was very successful. I obtained a large
quantity of very accurate results, very much the same as from the
preliminary results, from which It was able to create graphs showing
percentage increase. I think I took enough results for the amount of
concentrations that I was using, as I believe that this part of the
preliminary need not be changed, I also believe that the time I left
the potato chip in the solution for was enough and didn't need
shortening or lengthening. However if I was to repeat the experiment I
might well increase the time of the result to allow more osmosis to
happen as it may affect the osmosis rate. The cutting of the potatoes
was the most difficult part of the experiment as although I was
recording my results by mass, it could well have affected the surface
area and so the overall rate of osmosis. If I were to repeat the
experiment I would have possibly found a machine or tool to cut the
potato as it would ensure that all potatoes would be the same weight
and dimensions but no tool could be found so we had to make do with
the scalpels and ruler. As well as the potato I could have found a
more accurate way to measure out the solutions and to determine the
molar concentrations. There were not many out of the ordinary results,
but some were not as close to the line as others. This may have been
caused by my mistakes that were not before picked up on in the
preliminary. When the potato chips were removed from the test tubes
and dried I may well have dried some potatoes more thoroughly than
others and so some would have more excess water, which would add to
the mass quite considerably. If the experiment was repeated I could
find another way to dry the potatoes that would ensure that all were
dried in the same way for the same time. However with all this said I
think that the experiment was very successful and I was very pleased
with the complete comparison of my results with my initial prediction.



Osmosis Lab Report Essay

1615 WordsApr 6th, 20137 Pages

Osmosis Rates in Artificial Cells

Daniel George
Department of Biology
Grand Valley State University
1 Campus Drive
Allendale, MI 49401 georged@mail.gvsu.edu Abstract The lab for this paper was conducted for the topic of osmosis, the movement of water from high to low concentration. Five artificial cells were created, each being filled with different concentrated solutions of sucrose. These artificial cells were placed in hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solutions for a period of 90 min. Over time, the rate of osmosis was measured by calculating the weight of each artificial cell on given intervals (every 10 minutes). The resulting weights were recorded and the data was graphed. We then could draw conclusions on the lab.…show more content…

The dialysis tubing will be clamped at one end in order to fill it and then clamped at the other end to seal the filled bag. If the bag is not soft and floppy, the experiment will not work. Blot a bag with a paper towel to absorb the moisture and weigh it, if this blotting process is not done it could interfere with the weight readings creating inaccurate information. After the bags of the solutions are prepared, they will be placed into five different beakers with different solutions. Beakers 1-4 will be filled with tap water and the fifth beaker is filled with 40% sucrose and water. Fill each beaker with just enough water or solution so that the bag is covered and place the bags in the beakers simultaneously and record each time. Every 10 min the bags are to be taken out, blotted, and weighed again before returning them back into their respective beaker for another 10 min. The process is repeated until you have reached 90 min. The weights should be recorded in grams (g).
Results
Table 1 shows the contents of the bags and the content of the concentration it was submersed in. Bags 2-4 each contain a solution of both sucrose and water. These bags were each put into beakers containing hypertonic solution. These bags gained weight over time because the water moved from its high concentration inside the beaker to the low concentration inside the membrane of the artificial cell, the membrane being the bags that consisted of dialysis tubing. The

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