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Antiasthmatic Activity Thesis Statement

A REVIEW ON ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS

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A REVIEW ON ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS

Santosh Kumar Singh*1, Jay Ram Patel 2, Prashant Kumar Dubey 3 and Sonia Thakur 1

Mittal Institute of Pharmacy 1, Opp. Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, By Pass, Nabibagh, Bhopal- 462038, Madhya Pradesh, India

RKDF College of Pharmacy 2, NH-12, Hoshangabad Road, Misrod, Bhopal- 462047, Madhya Pradesh, India

IES College of Pharmacy 3, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India


ABSTRACT: Plants have played an important role as various medicinal agents since ages. Medicinal herbs have been used in one form or another, under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani.  The knowledge of Indian medicinal plants and their uses in the Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine have led to many scientific investigations and researches throughout the world. Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affects about 155 million people worldwidse and it has been estimated that is further 100 million will be affected by 2025. It has affected 14-15 million people in the United States, including estimated 4.8 million childhoods. It accounts for about 11 million hospital visits annually and the sixth most frequent reason for visits in ambulatory setting. It the past decades research has been focused on scientific evaluation of traditional drugs of pant origin for the treatment of various diseases. Since the time immemorial, various herbs are used as antiasthmatic with efficient therapeutic response. India has about 45,000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties.


Asthma, Antiasthmatic, Traditional, Medicinal plants


INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a disease of the lung's airways. It affects 155 million individuals in the world.

Its Prevalence and severity among children have increased significantly in the world over the past 40 year.

It varies from 5–30 percent in different population 1, 2. It has affected 14–15 million people in the United States, including estimated 4.8 million children. It is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It accounts for about 11 million hospital visits annually and the sixth most frequent reason for visits in ambulatory setting.

About 4, 70,000 patients are hospitalized and more than 5,000 patients die annually due to asthma 3. Asthma closely correlates with the description of the disease "Tamak Shwasa" recorded thousands years ago by the sages and eminent scholars of Ayurveda 4.

Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder affecting a large proportion of population throughout the world 5. The plant is referred to as ‘Jivanti’ in Ayurvedic text and considered to be Rasayana (tonic) drug and is thus used to vitalize, nourish and rejuvenate the body 6. Ethno medicinally the leaves and seeds are used in asthma and cough 7. The major therapeutic claim is its galactogogue action, which has been proved in rats 8 along with the antimicrobial 9, anticarcinogenic 10 and hepatoprotective properties of plant 12, 13 in traditional system of medicine leaves of L. reticulata (Retz) Wight & Arn are mainly used for the treatment of cough, asthma, rheumatism 8, 14. Many asthma attacks are triggered by allergens, such as dust, mould spores, mites, animal hair or feathers but the onset may equally be caused by cold air, or it may be preceded by an infection such as a cold. Certainly, stress and more specifically acute anxiety are known to be the immediate trigger for many attacks, and this can sometimes give rise to a vicious circle of asthma - anxiety about the asthma - further attacks. Thus a wide range of etiological factors can be involved in this all too common problem 15.

A number of different groupings can be applied:

  • Extrinsic asthma - caused by allergic responses to house dust, animal fur, or various foods. Such causes 10-20% of adult asthma.
  • Intrinsic asthma - caused by genetics, structural problems, infections, pollutants and stress - both physiological and psychological. Such causes 30-50% of adult asthma. The symptoms of people with asthma differ greatly in frequency and degree. Some have an occasional episode that is mild and brief; otherwise they are symptom free. Others have mild coughing and wheezing much of the time, punctuated by severe exacerbation's of symptoms following exposure to known allergies, viral infections, and exercise or nonspecific irritants. A series of stages have been characterized for describing the severity of an acute asthma attack:
  1. Mild: Mild dyspnoea; diffuse wheezes; adequate air exchange.
  2. Moderate: Respiratory distress at rest; hypernea, use of accessory muscles; marked wheezes.
  3. Severe: Marked respiratory distress; cyanosis; use of accessory muscles; marked wheezes or absent   breath sounds.
  4. Respiratory failure: Severe respiratory distress; lethargy; confusion; prominent pulsusparadoxus. Use of accessory muscles 16, 17.

Medicinal Plants used in asthma: Asthma is a global problem. Many synthetic drugs are used to treat acute symptoms of asthma, but they are not completely safe for long term use. Hence search has been started once again to look back to traditional medicine which can be used to treat asthma. Some traditional plants with antiasthmatic potential are discussed in table 1.

 

TABLE 1: LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN ASTHMA 1-122

S. No.Plant NamePlant part usedMechanism of action
Abutilon crispum (L.) Medicus.LeavesAntiasthmatic
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet.SeedAntiasthmatic
Aerva lantaLinnAerial partsAntiasthmatic
Acalypha indicaLeaves, roots, stalk and flowersBronchodialator
Achillea mellifoliumflowersBronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer
Acorus alamusRhizomeMast cell stabilizer
Ailanthus excelsLeavesAntiasthmatic, Antiallergic
Achyranthes aspera, Allium cepaFruitMast cell stabilizer
Ageratum conyzoides LLeavesAntiasthmatic
Adhatoda vasica NeesBulbMast cell stabilizer, Lipoxygenase inhibitor, PAF inhibitor, COX inhibitor
Albizzia

Lebbeck

BarkBronchodilator

Mast cell stabilizer

Asystasia

Gangetica

LeavesBronchodilator

Anti-inflammatory

Ammi visnagaSeedsBronchodilator
Amburana cearensisBarkBronchodilator
Allium cepa Linn.Bulbs/JuiceMast cell stabilizer,
Alstonia scholaris R. Br.LeavesBronchodilator
Aquillaria agallocha Roxb.StemMast cell stabilizer & Antiallergic
Argemone MexicanaStemBronchodilator
Aristolochia indica LRootsBronchodilator
Asclepias curassavica  LRootsAntiasthmatic
Asystasia gangeticaLeavesAntiasthmatic
Atropa belladonnaSeedsAsthma, Bronchitis, Muscuar Pain
Azadirachta indica A. JussLeavesMast cell stabilizer
Azima tetracantha  LamLeavesMast cell stabilizer
Bacopa monniera Linn.LeavesMast cell stabilizer
Balanites roxburghiiStem barkBronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.FruitsBronchodilator
Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.RootAsthma, Bronchitis
Brassica camperstris Linn.SeedBronchodilator
Biophytum nervifolium ThwLeavesMast cell stabilizer
Cassia absus LLeavesBronchodilator
Casuarina equisetofolia LinnBarkAntiasthmatic
Cedrus deodaraWoodMast cell stabilizer
Cnidium monnieriLeavesBronchodilator
Curculigo

Orchioides

RhizomesAntihistaminic

Anti-inflammatory

Centipeda minimaWhole plantMast cell stabilizer
Clerodendron phlomidisLeavesAntihistaminic, Mast cell stabilizer
Casuarina equisetifolia LinnWood, BarkAntiasthmatic
Chlorophytum laxum R. Br.TuberAntiasthmatic
Cissus quadrangularis LStemAntiasthmatic
Clematis smilacifolia WallLeavesAntiasthmatic
Clerodendrum serratum LinnRootsAntiasthmatic
Coccinia grandis (L.) VoigtTuberAntiasthmatic
Cynodon dactylonWhole PlantAntiasthmatic
Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br.LatexMast cell stabilizer & Anti-inflammatory
Cassia tora Linn.SeedsMast cell stabilizer
Clerodendron serratum Linn. Moon.Stem barkBronchodilator, Mast cell stabilizer
Cuminum cyminum Linn.RootsBronchodilator
Curcuma longa Linn.RhizomeMast cell stabilizer, Antiallergic & Anti

Inflammatory

Cynodon dactylon Pers.RhizomeMast cell stabilizer
Cassia sopheraLeavesBronchodilator, Antihistaminic
Dendrophthoe falcate L. f.BarkAntiasthmatic
Desmodium gangeticumRootsCough, Asthma, Vomitting
Dhatura metel Linn.Whole PlantAsthma
Elaeocarpus sphaericus K. SchumFruitsBronchodilator
Ephedra gerardianaStemBronchodilator
Eclipta alba LinnLeavesAntiasthmatic
Emblica officinalisFruitsAsthma, Bronchitis
Euphorbia hirtaAerial partsAntiasthmatic
Ficus bengalensis LinnBarkAntiasthmatic
Ficus exasperate YahlRootBronchodilator
Ficus racemosa Linn.LatexAntiasthmatic
Glycyrrhiza glabraRootsAntihistaminic, Antiallergic
Hemidesmus Indicus R.Br.RootsAntiasthmatic
Inula racemosa Hook. F.RootsMast cell stabilizer &

Antiallergic

Labisia PumilaLeafAntiasthmatic
Leptadenia ReticulataLeaves and RootsCough and AsthmaS
Lepidium sativum Linn.SeedsBronchodilator
Lannea coromandelica MerrWhole PlantAntiasthmatic
Leucas aspera (Willd.) LinkLeavesAntiasthmatic
Mangifera indica Linn.Seed & BarkAsthma
Manilkara hexandra Dubard.LeavesAntiasthmatic
Mimosa pudica LLeavesAntiasthmatic
Mentha spicata Linn. Emend. Nethh.LeavesLeaves  Mast cell stabilizer
Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex Wild.BulbMast cell stabilizer,

Antiallergic

Moringa oleiferaSeedBronchodilator
Mucuna pruriensSeedAntiasthmaticS
Myrica esculenta Buch-HamStem barkMast cell stabilizer,

Bronchodilator

Nigella sativaSeedBronchodilator
Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.Stem barkMast cell stabilizer,

Bronchodilator

Ocimum sanctumLeavesMast cell stabilizer
Ocimum tenuiflorum LinnLeavesAntiasthmatic
Ocimum sanctumLeafBronchitis, Cough
OleaRipe FruitsAntiasthmatic
Orthosiphon rubicundus BenthLeavesAntiasthmatic
Oxalis corniculata LWhole PlantAntiasthmatic
Passiflora incarnateLeavesBronchodilator & Histmine
Paederia foetidaLeavesBronchodilator
Phaseolus radiatesSeedAsthma, Chronic Bronchitis
Physidis angulata LinnLeavesMast cell stabilizer
Phymatodes scolopendriaAerial partsBronchodilator
Piper betel LinnLeavesBronchodilator
Pinus roxburghiiWhole PlantAsthma, Chronic Bronchitis
Piper nigrum Linn.FruitsBronchodilator
Picorrhiza kurroaRootsMast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator
Polygala elongataWilldRootsMast cell stabilizer
Portulaca quadrifida  LWhole PlantMast cell stabilizer
Premna obtusifoliaRootsAsthma, Bronchitis
Punica granatum Linn.SeedAsthma, Cough
Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth.exWhole PlantBronchodilator
Rivea hypocratoriformis Choisy.LeavesMast cell stabilizer
Sansevieria roxburghiana  Schult.LeavesAntiasthmatic
Semecarpus ancardiumFruitsAsthma, Cough
Solanum nigrum Linn.RootsMast cell stabilizer
Solanum surattense Burm.fWhole PlantAsthma, Bronchospasm
Spondias pinnata  Linn.fSeedsAntiasthmatic
Solanum xXanhocarpumRootsMast cell stabilizer
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.FlowersMast cell stabilizer
Striga orobanchioides BenthWhole PlantMast cell stabilizer, Antihistamine
Swertia ChirataLeavesBronchial asthma
Tamarindus indicaLeavesBronchodilator, Antihistaminic, Anti-inflammatory
Taxus baccata Linn.LeafAsthma, Bronchitis
Tephrosia purpuriaAerial partsMast cell stabilizer, Bronchodilator
Terminalia belericaLeaf gallsAsthma
Terminalia chebula Retz.FruitsMast cell stabilizer & Antiallergic
Tinospora cardifolia Wild Mier ex Hook f.StemMast cell stabilizer
Trachyspermum ammiFruitsAsthma
Tylophora asthmatica (L.f.) Wight & Arn.LeavesMast cell stabilizer & Anti inflammatory
Vitex negundo L.LeavesBronchodilator, Antiallergic & Mast cell stabilizer
Zanthoxylem rhetsa (Roxb.) DCFruitAntiasthmatic
Zingiber capitatum RoxbRhizomesAntiasthmatic
Zingiber officinale ThwRhizomesAntiasthmatic

CONCLUSION: All the traditional medicinal plants discussed in the review have exhibited significant clinical and pharmacological activity. Some medicinal plants alternatives employed in these traditions are proven to provide symptomatic relief and assist in the inhibition of disease development as well asthma caused by dust, mites, pollen, exercise or even by air, which produce mucus, saline, pain on breathing or unusual breathing. It is basically diagnosed by some synthetic and remedies like cough drops, and Glycyrrhiza glabra etc. the review reveled that to many of medicinal plants used by traditionally as antiasthmatic agent are  reported to have scientific evidence. All the natural products discussed in this review exhibit antiasthmatic activities.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are very cordially grateful to my parents and my esteemed respected guide Dr. Jay ram Patel, RKDF College of pharmacy, for his supervision advice and guidance for providing encouragement and facilities for compiling this work.

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    Kumar A, Gautam B, Dubey C and Tripathi PK: A review: Role of doxorubicin in treatment of cancer. Int J Pharm Sci Res2014; 5(10): 4109-16.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(10).4109-16


     

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IJPSR

Santosh Kumar Singh*, Jay Ram Patel , Prashant Kumar Dubey and Sonia Thakur

Mittal Institute of Pharmacy, Opp. Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, By Pass, Nabibagh, Bhopal- 462038, Madhya Pradesh, India

singhsantosh88@gmail.com

23 March, 2014

11 June, 2014

01 July, 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(10).4109-16

1, October 2014

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Острая боль обожгла грудь Беккера и ударила в мозг. Пальцы у него онемели. Он упал. И в следующее мгновение не осталось ничего, кроме черной бездны.