Robert Indiana (b.1928)
Born Robert Clark, he began as an abstract painter and wood sculptor before joining the pop art movement in New York City in 1954. Discarded stencils led him to explore a range of word art by putting letters and words (eg. Love, Eat, Die) in his paintings which were based on the decor of pinball machines. He called himself the "American painter of signs." He is best known for his 1960s graphic image "Love", which first appeared on Christmas cards and stamps. Later he created a sculptural version, which he replicated in differing styles and languages including a steel Hebrew version - using the word "Ahava". In 2008, he created a new image employing the word "Hope" all of whose proceeds were donated to Barack Obama's election campaign fund.
Jasper Johns (b.1930)
Together with Rauschenberg, Johns was an early pioneer of Pop-art during the 1950s. Moving from South Carolina to New York in 1949, he first became known for his paintings featuring the American flag (eg. "Flag", 1954-55), as well as other standard graphical images like targets and numbers. He was also noted for including encaustic paint and plaster relief in his oil paintings. After his flag pictures, he began to incorporate real objects into his paintings and also took up sculpture (eg. "Ale Cans", 1964). His use of pop-culture images and materials naturally caused him to be labelled as a Pop-artist, but his artistic statements (including a good deal of Duchamp-like parody, paradox and contradictions) have also led his work to be described as Neo-Dadaist. More of a classical, painterly artist than many other younger practitioners of Pop who relied on techniques of modern commercial art, Johns' intelligent and innovative works attracted much praise and patronage. In due course he explored various other media, including silkscreen and intaglio prints, and lithographs. In 1998, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York reportedly paid $20 million for his work "White Flag", while in 2006, his work "False Start" was bought by private collectors for a reputed $80 million, making it the most expensive painting by a living artist.
Alex Katz (b.1927)
A unique figurative painter, though he has also worked in printmaking and sculpture, Katz was associated with the Pop art due to his reworking of traditional themes in a Pop idiom. He is known for his innovative recasting of ideas used by Impressionists (especially Edouard Manet, Claude Monet and Georges Seurat), such as the differing effects of light, and scenes of bourgeois leisure-seekers, executed using wet-in-wet oil techniques and loose brushwork. On the other hand, some of his works are rather bleakly presented, seemingly without emotion or sensitivity.
Roy Fox Lichtenstein (1923-97)
A leading Pop-artist with an instantly recognizable style, his works turned comic-strip graphics into an international art form. Beginning as an abstract artist in the 1950s, a teaching post at Rutgers University brought him into contact with fellow-teacher Allan Kaprow, and triggered his involvement in pop-culture art. He began by painting free-hand versions of comic-strip frames, complete with text bubbles (eg. "Look Mickey", 1961), and had a sell-out show at the New York gallery of Leo Castelli, in 1961. The following year his works appeared in both major 1962 exhibitions in Pasadena and New York. By late 1963, Lichtenstein began to achieve worldwide attention. Iconic works of the time included: "Drowning Girl" (1963), and "Whaam!" (1963). In 1989, at Christies sale of contemporary art in New York, Lichtenstein's painting "Torpedo...Los!" sold for $5.5 million - a record for the artist.
Claes Oldenburg (b.1929)
Regarded as the major Pop-art sculptor, renowned for his public art installations often featuring monumental replicas of everyday objects, especially foodstuffs like burgers and ice-cream cones. Active in New York from 1956, Oldenburg came into contact with Allan Kaprow, Jim Dine, and the sculptor George Segal, and became taken up with Happenings, and other forms of Performance and Installation art. Noted works included: "Dual Hamburger" (1962), as well as his giant lipstick erected at Yale University in 1969. His main contribution to Pop, similar to that of Rosenquist, was to turn commonplace objects into art.
Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008)
Based largely in New York City, Rauschenberg - regarded, along with his some time lover Jasper Johns, as one of the leaders of Neo-Dada art - an early strain of Pop-art - studied at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, in 1948, under the ex-Bauhaus artist Josef Albers (famous for his "Homage to the Square" series). In 1951 he had his first one-man show at the Betty Parsons Gallery, and in 1954 had a second one-man show at the Charles Egan Gallery. Often described as a member of Neo-Dada for his affiliation with Marcel Duchamps "readymades", he is best known for his "Painting Combines" of the 1950s, consisting of non-traditional materials and objects presented in innovative combinations. At this time Rauschenberg specialized in using "found" materials like trash and other detritus which he collected off the streets of New York. However, from 1961 to 1962, he began to include images as well as found objects in his works, usually photographs transferred to the canvas via the silkscreen process. In this way, his work may be considered contemporaneous with that of Andy Warhol. Rauschenberg also worked in fine art photography, printmaking, papermaking, and performance.
James Rosenquist (b.1933)
A prominent Pop painter, Rosenquist trained at the Minneapolis School of Art and afterwards at the University of Minnesota. In 1955, aged 21, he moved to New York City to study at the Art Students League, before working as a billboard painter. Using his acquired sign-painting techniques to create large-scale paintings, he juxtaposed what appeared to be advertising with romantic-magazine imagery in order to produce a sense of discontinuity and irrationality as a commentary on modern life. A noted work at this time was his room-size painting "F-111" (1965). Like Oldenburg, Rosenquist's main contribution to Pop was to turn ordinary objects into art by giving them monumental size and weight.
Edward Ruscha (b.1937)
An Oklahoma guy who went hip in LA in 1956, Ruscha trained at the Chouinard Art Institute (now the California Institute of the Arts) until 1960 (being influenced by the art of both Marcel Duchamp and Jasper Johns), before working as a layout artist for the Carson-Roberts Advertising Agency in Los Angeles. In 1962, his paintings appeared alongside works by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Robert Dowd, Phillip Hefferton, Joe Goode, Jim Dine, and Wayne Thiebaud, in the ground-breaking show at the Pasadena Art Museum. His early noted works, generally icily perfect replications of billboards and gasoline stations, include: "Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights" (1961), and the oil painting "Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas."(1963), which had echoes of Hopper's "Gas" (1940). From the mid-1960s, he became known for his Word Paintings (also known as Liquid Word Paintings).
Andy Warhol (1928-87)
Seen by many as the High Priest of Pop-art, Warhol enjoyed a successful career as a commercial illustrator, before achieving worldwide fame for his pop-style painting, screenprints, avant-garde films, and a lifestyle involving a mixture of Hollywood stars, intellectuals, avant-garde artists and underground celebrities. His outlook on the impact of TV - a crucial factor in the identity and popularity of Pop-art - on art and life, is aptly summed up in his famous phrase: "Anyone can be famous for 15 minutes."
During the 1960s, he started producing paintings of iconic American products, like Campbell's Soup Cans, Coca-Cola bottles and dollar bills, together with images of international stars such as Marilyn Monroe, Ingrid Bergman, Elizabeth Taylor and Elvis Presley. He also established his famous New York art studio, known as "The Factory", where he anticipated Damien Hirst's mass production methods by more than 30 years.
Above all, Warhol's art revolved around iconography made famous through TV, newsfilm-clips and advertising, such as atomic bomb mushroom clouds, penitentiary electric chairs, car crashes and race riots. His pictures were therefore instantly recognizable and generated mass appeal.
Partly obscured by issues surrounding his fame and lifestyle, Warhol's status as an innovative and outstandingly creative artist is assured, not least for his transformation of commonplace images into icons of world art. In addition, he was exceptionally prolific, working across a wide range of media, including drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, and films.
Famous British Pop-Artists
Peter Blake - Patrick Caulfield - Richard Hamilton
David Hockney - Allen Jones - Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi
Peter Blake (b.1932)
First identified as a member of the emerging British Pop Art movement when he showed alongside David Hockney, R.B. Kitaj and others at the 'Young Contemporaries' exhibition, in 1961, Blake attracted wider attention when he featured in "Pop Goes the Easel", the 1962 film by Ken Russell on British Pop-art. However, he remains best known for designing the sleeve for the Beatles' "Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" album.
Andy Warhol: Influence on the Twentieth Century Pop Art Movement
1065 WordsJun 13th, 20085 Pages
As a profound influence on the twentieth century pop art movement, Andy Warhol ascended to become a cornerstone in the modern art world. After taking cues from society in the mid-twentieth century, as well as conversing with Muriel Latow, Warhol did what many artists strived to do but failed. Andy also extracted many of his ideas from other artists and built on them. He put a culture on canvas and revolutionized pop art for a life time. The nineteen sixties, seventies, and eighties were periods of self righteousness and discovery. With many new styles and beliefs arising during those eras, Warhol’s imagination would begin to produce ideas that were unheard of but revolutionary at the same time. American values were altered and so…show more content…
“The potent memory of the pathos and mystery of Marilyn’s death with the long-lived speculation surrounding it elevated her to the greatest modern star status. Warhol’s paintings participated in the public consolidation” (Copplestone 25). “Andy exaggerated the features of Marilyn Monroe that had made her beautiful” (Bolton 19). Also, the popularity of celebrities such as Jackie Kennedy and Elvis Presley soon began to sweep the nation (Wrbican). Warhol saw these people as icons for the sixties and also saw them as an inspiration to what would become his new art works. Despite how happy, pretty, or ideal the celebrities seemed on television, they were disasters in reality and Warhol executed his exposure of these secrets through pop art. After World War two had ended and the United States had entered the Vietnam War, the theme of mortality became less shocking to the population than in the years prior. With the acceptance of such things, Warhol decided to create a series of brutal artwork that would exemplify the understanding of life and death. “His series of death and disaster included paintings of electric chairs, suicides, and car crashes” (Wrbican). Warhol wanted the public to see what really goes on in society when people make destructive decisions. “Warhol used powerful, hard-hitting picture that summed up the way society was becoming so used to images of horror that they were no longer shocked by