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Ornamentation Irish Music Essay Scholarship

This is some Irish music notes I made up, hope they are a help :) I have written out some of the essay questions although not all of them but there is a lot done.

Irish Music

Traditional Features                                         Non traditional features

Solo                                                                            Group performances

No harmony                                                               Harmony

Ornamentation                                                           Accompaniment

Flattened 7th                                                        Non traditional instruments

Wide range                                                                Noted music

Monophonic                                                               Homophonic

No dynamics                                                              Fusions

Not expressive                                                          Syncopated rhythm

Repeat final note                                                       Dynamics

Traditional instruments                                             No ornamentation

Aural tradition – passed down by ear

Modal keys and gapped scales

Form dictates what way the dances go

Traditional Instruments                                       Non traditional instruments

Fiddle                                                                         Guitar

Flute                                                                            Mandolin

Tin whistle                                                                  Piano/keyboard

Uilleann pipes                                                            Synthesiser

Concertina                                                                 Bouzouki

Melodeon/button accordion                                        Drums

Harp                                                                            Harpsichord

Piano accordion                                                        Orchestral instruments

Harmonica                                                                 Ethnic instruments




Tenor banjo

Harp                            - Derek Bell, Laoise Kelly, Máire Ní Chathasaigh.

Fiddle                         - Frankie Gavin, Tommy Peoples, Paddy Glackin

Flute                            - Matt Molloy, Seamus Tansey

Whistle                       - Mary Bergin, Geraldine Cotter, Paddy Maloney

Uilleann Pipes           - Seamus Ennis, Willie Clancy, Pady Maloney

Bodhrán                     - Kevin Conneff, Mel Mercier

Sean Nós

Solo                                                    Free rhythm   

Unaccompanied                                No dynamics

In irish                                                 Glottal stop

Ornamentation                                   Modal tonality

Melismas                                           Nasal tone

Glissando/sliding                              Regional Differences

Examples:   Úna Bhán

                        Anach Cuain

                        An Droimeann Donn Dílis

                        Caoine na dTír Mhuire

Regional Differences


Scottish influence

Narrow range

Wider range

Regular rhythm

Nasal tone

Vibrato, pronounced nasal quality

Least Ornamenation

Lots of ornamentation, very melismatic

Rhythmic variation

Singers: Lillis Ó Laoire,

Salí Gallagher

Singers: Róisín Elsafty, Seosamh Ó hÉanaí

Singers: Iarla O’Lionair, Séamus Begley

Irish Dance Music










   Slip jig







Fast and lively

Most native, some English,

Most from 18th & 19th century

The Ten penny Bit

Smash the Windows

Hardiman the fiddler


4   or   2

4         2

Fast and flowing

Most common,

Scottish origin

Bonnie Kate

Cooley’s reel




Slower than reel

English origin, strong accent on 1st and 3rd  beats

The harvest home

Rights of man





, set dancing in sliabh Luachra

Britches full of stitches

Kerry polka


12  or  6

 8        8


 A fast single jig

Denis Murphy’s slide

Song Tradition

  • Sean-nós
  • Ballads (old and new)
  • Macaronic songs (in 2 languages)
  • Anglo-Irish songs

Type of songs




Love songs

Expressive, often sad

Úna Bhan

She moved through the fair


About loss, death, eviction, emigration of friend, longing for better times

Anach Chuain

An Mhaighéan Mhara

Drinking songs

Lively rhythm, celebratory, social events

Whiskey in the jar

Preab san Ól

Níl sé ‘na Lá

Working songs

For tasks like working in the fields, kitchen, forge, steady rhythm to match the work

Ding dong Dédero

Amhrán na Cuiginne


Gentle rockinig rhythm, sleep songs,

Deirin Dé

Dún o Shúile

Religious songs

Sorrowful, grief, focus on religious topics, usually slow, not common due to penal laws

Wexford Carol

Caoineadh na dTrí Mhuire

Humorous songs

Light hearted, lively rhythm,

The holy ground

An Poc ar Buille

Dandling songs

For small children, bouncy rhythm, repeats words and melody

Dílín Ó Deamhas

Patriotic songs

Ashling – dream/visions song,

Rebel/nationalist and famine songs


Four Green Fields

Táimse im’ Chodladh


Alternates between English and irish, Some patriotic in the irish parts

Siúil a Rúin

One day for Recreation


A narrative lyric song, often on political or social life, love, alcohol, emigration,the sea

The Foggy Dew

Finnegan’s Wake

The Croppy Boy

The Fields of Athenry

Anglo-Irish songs

Composed by irish in English language, many are ballads as well

The Last Rose of Summer

The Mountains of Mourne

Essay Topics

All Essay topics and the years they have appeared.


Sean Nós

The Term sean nós is used to describe unaccompanied solo singing, usually I the irish language in which the words and the music are of equal importance.

Sean nós is a singing style developed over the centuries in Irish speaking and Gaelic speaking . It has been passed on from generation to generation. The style is deeply rooted in the rhythms of the Gaelic language and in the metres and rhythms of Gaelic poetry.

Songs are sung with free rhythm, the singer speeds up or slows down to suit the words which may sometimes sound distorted. Dynamics are not used. The singer ornaments the tune to convey emotion. No two performances of a song by the same singer will be identical.

Melodic ornamentation used may be melismatic, where a note is replaced by a group of adjacent notes, or intervallic, where additional notes are used to fill intervals between notes in the tune. Rhythmic variation also is common where the notes may be lengthened or shortened. Sean nós singing tends to have a nasal tone quality. Glottal stopping is use which interrupts the flow of air through the wind pipe. Extra meaningless syllable are sometimes added to words and some singers slow down at the end while others speak the final line of the song.

There are three regions associated with sean nós singings; , Donegal and . These are all Gaeltacht areas and each has it’s own distinctive spoken dialect and sean nós style.  In Donegal ornamentation is not use very often and it has a very regular rhythm. Salí Gallagher is a performer of the Donegal sean nós style. In a lot of ornamentation is use and it is very florid. The songs also tend to have a narrower range. Seosamh Ó hÉanaí is a sean nós singer in . The range tends to be much wider in and many use vibrato so it is most similar to classical singing.

The Harping Tradition

The harping tradition in flourished from medieval times until the seventeenth century. It was fostered and developed among the powerful and wealthy Irish and Anglo-Irish families. Harpers were employed along with poets and orators, known as reacoirs, to provide entertainment for the families. As the families acted as patrons to the harpers, they would often have solo pieces, known as planxties, written in their honour by their harper. One famous song is Planxty Kelly. The occupation of a harper was a very prestigious one. The harping tradition was passed on, father to son, for many years and was one of very few viable career options for blind boys at the time. However, after 1600, as the great families went into decline, there was a loss of patronage and harpers were left unemployed. The harping tradition then became a nomadic one, as harpers would travel from county to county, playing for money and food.

There were two styles of harp: the Bardic harp and the Neo-Irish harp. The Bardic harp had between 29 and 31 strings made of wire, which were played with the nails. Usually around 70cm in height with a curved pillar and a hollow soundbox, the Bardic harp was the more resonant of the two. The Neo-Irish harp typically had 34 strings made of nylon or cat gut, which were played with the pads of the fingers. They were taller (about 91cm in height) than the Bardic harp, but less resonant. 

In 1792 the Belfast Harp Festival was setup with the aim of preventing the decline of the harping tradition. It consisted of eleven harpers from the age of 15 to 97, playing pieces in their own particular style. One player that was the light of the day was Denis Hempson, age 97, being the oldest player there. Edward Bunting was commissioned by the Belfast Harp Society to record the lifestyles of the harpers as well as recording and writing down the music from the festival to preserve it for future generations. This method, unlike the oral tradition which had existed up until then, did not allow for particular nuances in style and some of these were lost. There was a harping revival in the second half of the twentieth century. The role of the harp as a traditional instrument was led by Máire Ní Chathasaigh, who had solo albums such as “The New Strung Harp” and Laoise Kelly who release the album “Just Harp”

Seán Ó Riada:

Use for Irish composer

Sean O Riada (1931-1971) was born in and grew up in Bruff, Co. , where he learned to play the traditional fiddle. He studied music in University College Cork. He also learned to play piano and played it in both jazz and dance bands. He was assistant Director of music in Radio Éireann until he left for in 1955. After a further study in , where he became involved with Jazz and Greek musicians, he was appointed Musical Director of the Abby Theatre in in 1957 and also returned to work with Radio Eireann. O Riada first came to prominence in 1959 when he was commissioned by Gael Linn to write the Music for the movie ‘Mise Eire’. In 1963 O Riada took up a post lecturing in Music at , , and he continued to work there until his death in 1971.

Throughout his life O Riada was a much renowned Irish Music Composer. But he also composed Classical music. He was also a very talented Bodhran player – giving this instrument a new lease of life in Irish Music. Ó Riada was quite critical of ceilì bands and he formed a “folk orchestra” called Ceoltoirì Chulann in 1960. He wanted to create a popular audience for traditional music and give it the dignity it deserved. He hoped that his new band could revolutionize the arrangement and performance of Irish Music. There imaginative arrangements involve interweaving melodies a classical-style harmonies.

The bodhrán had been seen as a primitive rhythm instrument but once O’Riada use it in Ceoltóirí Chualann is became a mainstream traditional Irish instrument in many groups. He also wanted to revive the 18th century Irish Harp music so he played the harpsichord in order to replicate the sound. Despite not giving many concerts they had a large following. Their last performance was recorded on the album “O’Riada sa Gaiety”. When the group broke up in 1969 many of them joined The Chieftains, whose style was greatly influenced by O’Riada.

Connolly, third from left, on fiddle, and fellow Irish musicians rehearse for the 1991 documentary The Music Makers: Séamus Connolly and Friends. Photograph: Higgins and Ross / John J. Burns Library. Click image to enlarge.

Irish music is among the most prominent global representations of Irishness. Genres range across traditional, popular, and classical music—the fifes, drums, flutes, and lambegs of the Northern Unionists; the rock sounds of bands such as U2 and the Pogues; the musical fusions created by composers such as Bill Whelan, of Riverdance; and the magisterial collaborations between traditional and classical musicians spearheaded by innovators like Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin and Shaun Davey.

But it is traditional Irish instrumental music that remains the core: music played on instruments such as the fiddle, uilleann (pronounced “illen”) pipes, flute, concertina, accordion, tenor banjo, harp, and tin whistle—music that’s been preserved for centuries in efforts dating back to 1724, when the father-and-son team of John and William Neal of Dublin, instrument makers and concert promoters, published the first volume of Irish traditional music, the 49-melody A Collection of the Most Celebrated Irish Tunes: Proper for the Violin, German Flute or Hautboy.

Nearly 300 years later, a new work of preservation and dissemination, The Séamus Connolly Collection of Irish Music, has been published by the Boston College Libraries. Launched in October 2016, this online compilation features traditional music collected and curated by master fiddle player Séamus Connolly. A renowned teacher, impresario, and composer, Connolly was the Sullivan Artist in Residence at Boston College at the Burns Library from 2004 until his retirement in 2015. He is also a legendary player of 20th-century Irish traditional music, winning 10 all-Ireland solo championships, an achievement that seems unlikely to be surpassed. In 2013, the country he adopted in 1976 declared him a National Heritage Fellow, the most distinguished award bestowed by the United States upon practitioners of traditional arts.

The collection developed by Boston College offers 338 audio recordings, featuring more than 130 musicians, with accompanying commentary, stories, musical transcriptions, and several specialized essays by scholars and music journalists. While the largest Irish music archives in Ireland are severely constrained by copyright law, the materials on the Connolly Collection site can be downloaded or printed under a Creative Commons license, thanks to the foresight of Connolly and his librarian collaborators.

Scores of traditional music collections have been produced since the publication of the Neal volume. During the 19th century, inspired by the nationalistic movements sweeping Europe, earnest Irish antiquarians hurried to preserve a national art that appeared to be in danger of disappearing. Their work was not in vain. Over the past 50 years, these collections, and others published in the 20th century, have been a primary resource for the global renaissance of Irish music.

It’s not volume that makes the Connolly Collection special. The 338-piece grouping is dwarfed by 1909’s Pigot Collection—”842 Irish Airs and Songs Hitherto Unpublished”—which was assembled by Dublin lawyer John Edward Pigot (1822–71). And the tunes amassed by Canon James Goodman (1822–96), a Church of Ireland minister who himself played the pipes and preached in Gaelic, number nearly 2,500.

What the Connolly Collection offers, however, is depth, Connolly’s singular taste, and a manifestation of its time, which is pretty much the span of the 72-year-old Connolly’s life, at least from the moment when he first heard Irish music performed as a young child and, according to family lore, climbed a stage to stand with the musicians and pretend to play a fiddle with them. The music is sorted by categories. In dance: reels, barn dances, flings, jigs, slides, highlands, schottisches, clog dances, strathspeys, waltzes, polkas, hornpipes. In non-dance: airs, marches, planxties. The most arcane category is that of galliard, a form popular in Europe during the 16th century. A few songs are also offered and one instance of “mouth music”—a form of vocalizing that mimics the sound of instruments.

The audio recordings are sometimes field samples but more frequently were made by contemporary performers selected and enlisted by Connolly. These range from such eminences as the globally renowned Clare fiddler Martin Hayes to gifted locals, such as the Maine flute player Nicole Rabata. Complementing the entries, Connolly offers musical transcriptions and a reflection on each tune or song, which more often than not involves a meeting with the composer or the person from whom he learned the music or both.

Click image to view a slideshow with captions.

Though often thought to be representative, collections of Irish music assembled over the past two centuries have invariably been filtered through the aesthetic sensibilities of the curators. If the Irish painter George Petrie (1790–1866) thought a song or tune was weak, he simply did not include it in his important 1855 Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland. Likewise, when the classical musician Edward Bunting (1773–1843), another devotee of “ancient Irish music,” thought a tune to be an inferior recent composition, he left it out of the seminal three-volume collection he published between 1796 and 1840.

Working in that tradition, what Connolly offers is a selection of tunes and songs filtered through the aesthetic sensibility of a master musician with impeccable taste. Seekers of top-40 Irish folk tunes, or songs that Irish traditional musicians might consider common or overplayed, should look elsewhere.

Connolly, rather, adheres to an aesthetic rooted in what some musicians call “The Pure Drop”—the perceived core of the tradition. And judgment in this arena of Irish music, which is without an inherited canon of formal criticism such as exists for Western classical music, comes down to an individual’s informed taste and discernment.


Identifying the Pure Drop can be a quixotic, even puzzling adventure. The late Frank Harte, one of Ireland’s most noted 20th-century singers, had an exquisite sense of taste when it came to styles in Irish traditional singing. Ornamentation was important, he would say to me, but only in some songs. Slow songs might need a different approach than fast songs. But not always. Tone, timbre, and pitch might be important, but they were not the main thing. Harte didn’t care too much for “pretty” or over stylized singing, but then he would make exceptions for certain singers. After maintaining that the quality of voice wasn’t really that important in traditional Irish singing, he would then describe somebody as having a “good hard voice.”

Similar considerations are in play when one is trying to come to terms with the notion of excellence in traditional instrumental playing. Virtuosity, ornamentation, tone, technique, and intonation are among the variables, but how they are valued depends on one’s taste—and hopefully a sensibility that has been honed by years and experience.

As did Harte, Connolly has such years and such experience. It should be noted, however, that Connolly is no antiquarian. There are as many new compositions and songs in his collection as there are ancient ones, and as many young musicians as veterans.

Click image to view a slideshow with captions.

The Séamus Connolly Collection is a record not just of music and its social and historical contexts, but of Connolly’s life as a musician. The recordings themselves manifest the relationships Connolly built with fellow players over the decades. These friendships are why the participants agreed to donate their talents, to create original performances, and to make their art available without charge.

Among the recordings are some that seem to me particularly important. Of the great musicians who played Irish music in Boston over the past century, none was more celebrated that Dan Sullivan (1874–1948) who was a Tin Pan Alley songwriter, piano player, and leader of Dan Sullivan’s Shamrock Band, which recorded prodigiously in the 1920s and early 1930s. His band members numbered some of the finest Boston musicians of the early 20th century. The Connolly collection brings his music alive through no fewer than five stellar recordings dating from the 1920s, and new recordings of pieces such as “Dan Sullivan’s Favorite,” played beautifully by New York uilleann piper Jerry O’Sullivan who also plays on nine other pieces in the collection.

On both sides of the Atlantic, Irish traditional music was essentially a male-dominated tradition up to the 1970s. One of the few women musicians who played Irish music in public prior to that time was Julia Clifford, a redoubtable County Kerry woman with the strongest of personalities. The first piece of dance music in the Connolly collection features her playing a lovely reel called “Old Torn Petticoat.” The story Connolly tells of the effect on his life of meeting her underscores, I think, his main rationale for spending more than a decade on this challenging project: gratitude.

He writes on the website, “I believe it is important to feature master fiddle player Julia Clifford and her son Billy playing the first dance tune in this collection. It was the first reel that they recorded for me that night in Tralee over 50 years ago, when Julia invited me to record herself and Billy playing tunes she thought I might not have. When they played a tune I admitted to never having heard, she would ask me in surprise, ‘You don’t have it, do you?'” Connolly continues: “As I look back now, I realise that it was an act of musical generosity to a young musician, which perhaps contained within it the inspiration not only for this project, but also for how I, throughout my life as a musician and teacher, have been driven and encouraged to do my utmost in passing along to others this incredible and astonishing oral and aural tradition.”

The collection also features four songs from the charismatic singer Robbie McMahon, who like Connolly came from east County Clare, including “Spancilhill,” one of the Clare anthems of the emigrant experience. Connolly is again poignant both in his knowledge of the music and in his warm recollection of his past.

“Spancilhill in east County Clare gives its name to this song which I first heard around 1958, sung by Robbie McMahon, who was himself from that very same neighbourhood. Robbie gave us his updated rendition during a wonderful afternoon of singing in his home a few years ago, after Mrs. Maura McMahon, in her usual manner of hospitality, served us a fine Irish meal. Robbie told my friends and me that Michael Considine from Spancilhill wrote the song. Mr. Considine was born around 1850 and immigrated to America as a young man. His intent was to bring his sweetheart to America when he had saved enough money for her passage. He passed away around 1873, in California, but the song found its way back to County Clare and was popularised by McMahon’s singing of it.”

Connolly concludes his essay on how the collection came to be, and the troubled stages he went through during a decade of work on the project, with a reflection on “The Parting Glass,” a classic song of farewell popularized by Tommy Makem and the Clancy Brothers in the 1960s, but with roots that are believed to date back to 17th-century Scotland. It is performed for the collection by legendary Northern Ireland singer Len Graham.

“‘The Parting Glass,'” Connolly writes, “[brings] to mind many wonderful moments of joy and laughter as I reminisce on the years of recording and collecting for this project. These memories, the songs and music, will forever remain in my heart. Not wanting to say goodbye, I would prefer something a little more upbeat, in the spirit of what my father always said to me as I was leaving home: ‘Never say goodbye, always say Cheerio.’ So, I have chosen Len’s song as a way of saying not goodbye, but for now, Cheerio.”

Who will benefit most from this treasury? To some degree anyone interested in Irish and Irish-American history and culture. But its enduring beneficiaries are likely to be scholars of Irish music and musicians and singers. Connolly has built a storehouse of tunes he personally respects—that seem to him well worth preserving—and while many of the tunes will be unfamiliar to listeners, the fact is that many will now end up in the repertoires, recordings, and concert performances of musicians over the next decades, who will then themselves determine what should be passed on. This is the folkloric tradition at work.

Mick Moloney is a folklorist, musician, and professor of music and Irish studies at New York University. He is the author of Far From the Shamrock Shore: The Story of Irish Immigration Through Song (2002) and Across the Western Ocean: Songs of Leaving and Arriving (2016). The Séamus Connolly Collection of Irish Music project team at Boston College Libraries included Irish music librarian Elizabeth Sweeney, digital archives specialist Jack Kearney, digital publishing assistant Nancy Adams, senior digital scholarship librarian Anna Kijas, web design and communication specialist Chris Houston-Ponchak, and web applications developer Ben Florin.