For a fitness training programme to be sport specific, it is necessary to assess which fitness types are most important for that sport. It is also important to be able to explain why and when each type of fitness is required. It might be helpful to refer back to the Health, fitness and exercise study guide for the definitions of the types of fitness.
One way of analysing the fitness requirements of a sport and/or specific position is to carry out a match analysis by observing live or recorded matchplay for a certain length of time and noting when and how each type of fitness appears.
Alex Danson of Great Britain runs past an opponent at the London 2012 Olympic Games
For example, in a hockey match, analysing a high forward position for ten minutes, use of speed may be noted 12 times while use of strength may be noted only three times. From this it can be deduced that speed is important for a high forward while strength is not so important.
During the match analysis, observations can also be made about when speed was used – to beat a defender, to receive a fast paced pass, to sprint into space – these are all justifications for speed being an important fitness type for a high forward.
The results of the match analysis could then be put into a chart, for example:
Fitness requirement chart
Position: High Forward
Duration: 10 minutes
|Fitness type||Times observed||Used for/justification|
|Speed||12||Beating defender; Receive fast pass; Sprint into space|
|Strength||3||Shooting; Tussling with defender|
|Agility||9||With ball, beating defender; Without ball, creating space; Rebounding shots|
Evaluating fitness strengths and weaknesses of a performer for their sport
This means comparing the results of the performer's fitness chart with the sport's fitness requirements chart and analysing the performer's fitness suitability for the sport.
Using the above examples, speed is very important for a high forward in hockey but the performer's speed is only average so improving speed will need to be a high priority in the training programme. The performer's agility is a strength (above average in the fitness chart) and this matches the sport's requirements as this fitness component was shown to be important in the match analysis.
Strength is not important for a high forward so even though it is a weakness for the performer it does not need to be a training priority.
Убийца целился, высунувшись из окна. Беккер вильнул в сторону, и тут же боковое зеркало превратилось в осколки. Он почувствовал, как этот удар передался на руль, и плотнее прижался к мотоциклу. «Боже всевышний. Похоже, мне не уйти!» Асфальт впереди становился светлее и ярче.