Numbers are classified as CARDINAL NUMBERS, ORDINAL NUMBERS, OR ROMAN NUMERALS. Cardinal numbers are also known as ARABIC NUMBERS, and they are the numbers we use for counting (e.g. one, two, three or 1, 2, 3). The rules pertain to cardinal numbers, unless otherwise stated. Ordinal numbers are cardinal numbers with the suffix –TH, –ETH, –ND, –RD, OR –ST (e.g. first, second, third or 1st, 2nd, 3rd). Ordinal numbers are used to show order, rank, or sequence. Sometimes numbers are written in figures (numerals), and sometimes they are spelled out in words.
Always spell out a number in words if it begins a sentence. However, if the number requires more than two words to spell out, reword the sentence so the number comes later and can be written in figures.Examples of Rule #1:
Fifteen new employees started work today.
We now employ 350 people at our Seattle office.
INCORRECT: Three hundred fifty people are employed at our Seattle office.
Generally, spell out the numbers one through ten in words. Use figures for numbers above ten, unless they begin a sentence. If a number between one and ten appears in the same sentence with a number written in figures, then the number one through ten may be written in figures for consistency.Examples of Rule #2:
We have five new employees.
I counted 22 adults and 14 children at the wedding reception.
Of the 150 people there, only 5 were late.
Use a combination of figures and words for numbers in millions and billions. Use figures if a number in millions or billions is combined with a number below one million.Examples of Rule #3:
The debt rose to $4.5 billion last year after the capital expansion program began.
Sales increased from $987,000 to $2,000,000 last year.
Numbers used with nouns may be written in either figures or words.Examples of Rule #4:
We ordered the Model 4 printer for our office.
Refer to policy five in your employee handbook regarding dress code.
AGES AND ANNIVERSARIES
Spell out ages and anniversaries in words if they can be written in one or two words.
Examples of Rule #5:
I will be twenty–seven years old next month.
Jon and I will celebrate our seventh wedding anniversary in April.
The city's 150th anniversary celebration will be held in 2001.
HOUSE NUMBERS AND STREET NAMES
Use figures for house numbers above one.Examples of Rule #6:
One Caldwell Street
202 Caldwell Street
Spell out street names one through ten in words; use figures for street names above ten.
Use figures for numbers after the month in a date.Examples of Rule #8:
February 1, 199965th Street
Use ordinal numbers (a cardinal number with the suffix –th, –eth, –nd, –rd, or –st) if the number appears in a date before the month or if the date stands alone.Examples of Rule #9:
I will retire January 29, 2012.
I will retire on the 29th of January in 2012.
I will retire on the 29th.
Use figures to show time if you include a.m., p.m., noon, or midnight. However, write the time in words with
o'clock. Even times may be written with or without the colon and zeros.
I will be home at 4 p.m.
I will be home at four o'clock.
Mail is picked up at 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m.
The words noon and midnight may be used with or without the figure 12. When these words are used, however, with other times that include a.m. or p.m., include the figure 12. DO NOT use a.m. or p.m. after the figure 12; use the word noon or midnight.Examples of Rule #11:
Margaret will arrive at noon.
Margaret will arrive at 12 noon.
The flights leave at 8:15 p.m. and 12 midnight.
INCORRECT: The flights leave at 8:15 p.m.and midnight.
INCORRECT: I will be in my office by 12 p.m.
Use words to express periods of time in days, weeks, months, or years if you can write the time in one or two words. Use figures if the period of time cannot be expressed in one or two words.
Examples of Rule #12:
We have made many gains over the last eighteen months.
Our accounts usually take 120 days to collect.
MEASUREMENTS AND MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS
Use figures for numbers expressed as decimals. In a sentence, when the decimal begins with a number other than zero, place a zero before the decimal.Examples of Rule #13:The difference between the two results was 0.3.
Percentages may be in figures, but the word percent or percentage must be spelled out (with the exception of statistical tables, where % may be used).
Examples of Rule #14:
Productivity has increased 0.3 percent over last quarter.
Spell out simple two–word fractions in words; however, awkward fractions may be written in figures.Examples of Rule #15:
The committee completed three–fourths of its work before the holiday break.
The fraction 26/100 could also be stated as 0.26.
Use figures for weights and measurements, but spell out the name of the measurement (liter, quart, etc.).Examples of Rule #16:
Please order 5 quarts of milk and 2 pounds of butter.
Use dollar signs in text. Write all other symbols, such as asterisks or plus signs, in words. Symbols may be used in tables, charts, graphs, forms, or other visuals where space is limited.Examples of Rule #17:
Karen earned $855.50 in bonuses last month.
My boss wants me to insert an asterisk if I add a note to the report.
Use figures for $1 or more. Omit the decimal and zeros with a whole dollar amount, unless the whole dollar
amount is used with other dollar amounts containing dollars and cents. Use figures and the word cents for less than $1, unless the amount under a dollar appears with other dollar amounts. In that case, write the amount under $1 in figures.
This book will cost $56.25.
This book will cost $56.
The stamp cost 33 cents.
Mailing these applications will cost $.33, $2.00, and $3.55.
In legal documents, spell out terms for money in words followed by the figures in parentheses.Examples of Rule #19:
We will pay up to four hundred fifty–five thousand eight hundred thirty dollars ($455,830) for the building.
Use commas to divide figures into groups of three. DO NOT place commas, however, in years, house numbers, room numbers, post office box numbers, telephone numbers, serial numbers, or page numbers.Examples of Rule #20:
1,000 P.O. Box 1110
1109 Ridge Court
Use a comma to separate two figures together in a sentence.Examples of Rule #21:
In 1998, 1,000 people moved to our town.
If consecutive numbers modify a noun, write the first number in words and use figures for the second number. However, use a figure for the first number if it cannot be written in one or two words.Examples of Rule #22:
I will need four 60–watt bulbs.
We must purchase 155 33–cent stamps.
DO NOT use an apostrophe with the plurals of numbers.Examples of Rule #23:
How many 6s did you roll on the dice?
ROMAN NUMERALSSome commonly used Roman numerals are shown below:
MV (place a line over the V)
V (place a line over the V)
X (place a line over the X)
C (place a line over the C)
M (place a line over the M)
Use Roman numerals in the following instances: (1) in outlines; (2) for preliminary pages in a book or manuscript (lowercase); (3) to indicate volume numbers in a multi–volume published work; (4) to show dates in movies, on plaques, and on public buildings; (5) to indicate the acts and scenes in a play; and (6) to refer to individuals with the same name.Examples of Rule #24:
The preface is found on page iii of the book.
Volume XIII of the encyclopedia contains an article on the subject of monkeys.
The couple named their child John Henry Jones III.
APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines
Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well.
- Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper.
- Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
- The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
- APA recommends using Times New Roman font, size 12.
- Double space the entire research paper
- Include a page header known as the “running head” at the top of every page. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add these components onto each page)
- To create the running head/page header, insert page numbers justified to the right-hand side of the paper (do not put p. or pg. in front of page numbers)
- Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” justified to the left using all capital letters
- If your title is long, this running head title should be a shortened version of the title of your entire paper
Sample running head/page header
APA Paper Components
Your essay should include these four major sections:
- Title Page
- Main Body
This page should contain four pieces: the title of the paper, running head, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and an author’s note. Create the page header/running head as described above.
*Please note that only on the title page, your page header/running head should include the words “Running Head” before your title in all capitals. The rest of the pages should not include this in the page header. It should look like this on the title page:
- The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose
- It should be centered on the page and typed in 12-point Times New Roman font. Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title.
- Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length.
- All text on the title page should be double-spaced in the same way as the rest of your essay
- Do not include any titles on the author’s name such as Dr. or Ms.
- The institutional affiliation is the location where the author conducted the research
Sample Title page:
On the following page, begin with the Running title.
- On the first line of the page, center the word “Abstract” (but do not include quotation marks).
- On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
- This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than 250 words.
- If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.
Sample Abstract page:
On the following page, begin with the Body of the paper.
- Start with the Running title
- On the next line write the title (do not bold, underline, or italicize the title)
- Begin with the introduction. Indent.
- The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
- Begin a new section with the Method. Bold and center this subtitle The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
- Begin a new section with the Results. Bold and center this subtitle. The Results section summarizes the data. Use graphs and graphs to display this data.
- Begin a new section with the Discussion. Bold and center this subtitle. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.
- Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions.
- Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results.
- Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.
** Throughout the body, in-text citations are used and include the author’s/authors’ name(s) and the publication year. In APA format page numbers are not used in in-text citations.
Ex: (Wilkonson, 2009).
For more information about how to cite properly please see EasyBib’s guides for APA citations based on the sources you are using.
Sample Body page:
On a new page, write your references.
- Begin with a running title
- Center and bold the title “References” (do not include quotation marks, underline, or italicize this title)
- Alphabetize and Double-space all entries
- Every article/source mentioned in the paper and used in your study should be referenced and have an entry.
Sample Reference Page: